In Metaphors We Live By, George Lakeoff & Mark Johnson, make a case for the notion that metaphors are not merely a matter of language, but also a matter of thought.
That is, we do not merely speak in metaphor; we think in metaphor.
According to Lakeoff & Johnson:
“Metaphor is for most people a device of the poetic imagination and the rhetorical flourish–a matter of extraordinary rather than ordinary language. Moreover, metaphor is typically viewed as characteristic of language alone, a matter of words rather than thought or action. For this reason, most people think they can get along perfectly well without metaphor. We have found,on the contrary, that metaphor is pervasive in everyday life, not just in language but in thought and action. Our ordinary conceptual system, in terms of which we both think and act, is fundamentally metaphorical in nature.”
The authors go even further by arguing that our actual experiences are structured by our metaphorically grounded understandings.
One example of this is the argument as war metaphor.
When we talk about arguments, we tend to use the language of warfare (ie. he attacked my position, she defeated his argument, I stood my ground, he was very defensive, her premises were vulnerable, etc.).
These linguistic patterns are not the primary source of metaphor. Instead, they are secondary expressions of the underlying conceptual frames that govern our thinking.
We speak of arguments as war because we understand, or mentally represent, arguments in that particular way.
Consequently, our experience of arguments tend to feel as if they actually are battles.
There are hundreds of examples like this.
In everyday life, we speak and think in metaphors all the time.
Of course, there’s nothing wrong with this.
But, our experiences can easily become unnecessarily restrictive when we mistake our metaphors for literal descriptions and objective truths.
In The Hermeneutics of Postmodernity, G.B. Madison wrote:
“Metaphor performs an existential function in that it provokes a change in the way we view things, it brings about a transformation in our thinking.”
Conceptual frames, when overlooked, show up as fixed unalterable realities. Those same frames, when recognized and understood, begin to function as props that we can pick up or put down depending on how we wish to play (notice my use of the life as a game metaphor).
By becoming conscious of our metaphors, we gain the ability to deliberately create pattern interrupts in our own thinking.
What happens to your “problem” when you cease to think of it as “the way it is” and you begin to explore the possibility that you are the victim not of reality, but of the metaphors you’ve learned to live by?
Fired up by metaphors? Here’s a great article by Maria Popova, founder of Brain Pickings, on The Magic of Metaphor: What Children’s Minds Teach Us about the Evolution of the Imagination